The topic is health promotion with diabetes being the choice of health promotion
The topic is health promotion with diabetes being the choice of health promotion. I am going to try to send a paper to compare. Health Promotion Health promotion is critical to health improvement among individuals and their communities. Health promotion improves overall health by empowering people to increase the level of control over their health (Ali & Katz, 2015). Overall, health is improved through raising awareness, campaigning for behavior modification, educating individuals on risk factors for diseases and risk behaviors, and motivating populations to utilize the available health resources for health improvement (Seymour, 2018). Health promotion seeks to achieve equity by reducing health disparities by providing equal opportunities and resources (Ali & Katz, 2015). The topic of health promotion for the assignment is diabetes in older adults. The paper will focus on the epidemiology, prevalence, incidence, the cost burden of diabetes in older adults, and the policy that impact the health condition and how the policy affects practice and health outcomes. Disease Incidence The annual incidence of diabetes is 1.5 million people in America, with the incidence rate being higher for adults aged 65 years and above (American Diabetes Association, 2018). Among the U.S. adults, non-Hispanic blacks and those of Hispanic origin have higher incidence rates of 8.2 per 100 persons and 9.7 per 1000 persons than non-Hispanic Whites with an incidence rate 5.0 per 1000 persons (National Diabetes Statistics Report, 2020). The disparities can be attributed to socioeconomic status, lack of access to healthcare, and cultural behaviors that lead to poor nutrition, obesity, and a sedentary lifestyle (The United States Food and Drug Administration, 2020). Prevalence The global prevalence of diabetes is estimated to be 9.3% and is expected to rise to 10.2 by 2030 and 10.9% by 2050 (Saeedi, Petersohn, Salpea, Malanda, Karuranga, Unwin, & Shaw, 2019). The national prevalence of diabetes in the United States is 10.5%, which is higher than the global rate, with prevalence in older adults being 26.8% (American Diabetes Association, 2018). The prevalence is higher in urban areas compared to prevalence in rural areas, and it is higher in high-income countries compared to low-income countries, with 10.4% and 4.0%, respectively (Saeedi et al., 2019). The rise of diabetes especially types two diabetes, is attributed to aging as risk increases with age, obesogenic environment, and urbanization as they affect the ability to maintain a healthy lifestyle (Saeedi et al., 2019). Epidemiology The Healthy People 2020’s goal for diabetes mellitus is to reduce the disease burden of diabetes and improve the quality of life for people with diabetes and those at risk. Diabetes Mellitus is the seventh leading cause of death in the U.S., and it affects an estimate of 29.1 million people (American Diabetes Association, 2018). The most common type of diabetes is type 2 diabetes, which is related to various comorbidities, including cardiovascular diseases, kidney failure, limb amputations, and other complications (Healthy people 2020, n.d.). Minority populations are more likely to be affected by type 2 diabetes as they constitute 25% of the adult patients, and the majority of children and adolescents are diagnosed with diabetes (Healthy people 2020, n.d.). Hispanics, African Americans, Indians, Asians, and other minority groups have a higher risk of developing diabetes than whites Indians (American Diabetes Association, 2018). Among those diagnosed with diabetes, 7.5% are non-Hispanic whites, non-Hispanic blacks are 11.7%, 12.5 are Hispanics, 9.2% are Asian Americans, and 14.7% are American Indians (American Diabetes Association, 2018). Higher rates among the minority groups are linked to socioeconomic, sedentary lifestyles, nutrition, and other practices that increase the disease (The United States Food and Drug Administration, 2020). Costs In the United States, the total cost, as estimated in 2017, was $327 billion, with $237 billion being channeled to medical care, while $90 billion was due to reduced productivity (National Diabetes Statistics Report, 2020). Excess medical costs per person for individuals with diabetes increased from $8,417 to $9,601 (National Diabetes Statistics Report, 2020). The majority of the costs were through Medicaid and were related to the costs of treating complications. An analysis conducted in 2017 indicated increased costs due to an increased 11% (Riddle & Herman, 2018). Research also indicates that low-income neighborhoods experience higher expenditures relating to high-severity hospitalization and emergency visits (Riddle & Herman, 2018). Description Population Older adults with diabetes require a different type of services at various stages. Diabetes in older adults aged 65years and above is linked to increased risk of being institutionalized, higher mortality, reduced functional status, and increased risk of severe comorbidities of diabetes such as cardiovascular diseases, limb amputation, end-stage renal disease, visual impairment, and increased rate of emergency department (Yakary?lmaz, & Öztürk, 2017). With all the medical services needed by the patients, getting insurance for all the services may be a challenge if not covered by their insurance covers. Specific Legislators The Federal Essential Health Benefits (EHB) was provided by the Patient and Affordable Care Act (ACA) in section 1302(a) and (b) to balance coverage and costs. EHB provisions resulted from an amendment to the Public Health Service Act required by the ACA. The federally determining essential health benefits were to ensure a consistent level of benefit by balancing comprehensiveness, coverage of essential services, and limiting out-of-pocket expenses (Ulmer, Ball, McGlynn, & Hamdounia, 2011). The secretary of the U.S. Department of Health And Human Services was granted the sole authority by the ACA to define the EHB benefit package. The secretary defined the package in collaboration with a committee of experts from the Institute Of Medicine (Ulmer, Ball, McGlynn, & Hamdounia, 2011). The committee integrated perspectives from population health, evidence-based practice, ethics, and economics. The 10 categories of benefits were listed by congress. A series of sessions with the stakeholders such as employers, state representatives, consumers, and state businesses took place to gather opinions. The final proposed rule was developed after the draft rule was published in November, and the feedback from the states, health providers, members of the congress, and other experts was incorporated. The Policy The transition of the non-grandfathered health plan was on the first of January 2014 EHB applies to policies sold in the exchange, small group, and individual markets. Non-grandfathered health plans are those health plans that were established after March 23, 2010, after the establishment of the ACA (Norris, 2020). All individual and small-group plans are required by the ACA to cover ten essential benefits under the conditions that there should be no dollar limit on annual or on lifetime benefits at all (Norris, 2020). The EHB include ambulatory patient services, hospitalization, prescription drugs, laboratory services, maternity, and newborn care, emergency services, pediatric services, rehabilitative services, behavioral health treatment, and preventive services and chronic disease management. The State has the mandate to include any additional benefits within the selected benchmark plan as determined by the State (National Conference of State Legislature, 2020). Inter-Professional Team The Essential Health Benefits were established to prevent insurers from cutting benefits to reduce costs (Amadeo, 2020). EHB expanded the health benefits for individuals, focusing on preventative care to reduce the growth rate of healthcare costs in the country. Patients no longer face the challenge of dollar limits on services as they can receive comprehensive care. The policy encourages interprofessional collaboration by ensuring that care is affordable and accessible to patients by increasing coverage and reducing pocket costs. Some of the benefits, such as preventative, wellness services, and the management of chronic diseases, have an impact on practice and health outcomes. The ability of patients to access various preventive health services improves the outcomes. Multidisciplinary work is essential in promoting the delivery of preventive medicine and patient education in the primary care setting (Fowler, Garr, Mager, & Stanley, 2020). According to the Institute of Medicine (2015), nurses and other healthcare professionals have an impact on the quality of care offered, patient-centered and individualized care, accessible and affordable care. Preventive services are linked to reduced mortality rates and morbidity rates for patients with chronic diseases such as cancer, diabetes, infectious diseases, mental health, vision and oral health, and others (Fowler, Garr, Mager, & Stanley, 2020). With accessible and affordable care, patients can access care when needed ad health care providers can collaborate to offer comprehensive. Conclusion The prevalence of diabetes in the U.S. and globally is an issue of concern to individuals and the governing bodies. The health problem poses not only a threat to the quality of life of individuals but also the economic sector. The epidemiology, prevalence, and incidence of the disease point to areas of improvement, such as health disparities, health risks, and how to minimize the risks. The ACA has created major healthcare reforms, one being the EHB. The EHB has proven significant in managing chronic diseases such as diabetes through the provision of preventive care. EHB improves access to essential services and allows health professionals to work together to provide quality care. Individuals need to be aware of the EHB and how they can utilize them to manage their health conditions. ? References Amadeo, K. (2020). The 10 Essential Health Benefits Of the ACA. https://www.thebalance.com/the-10-essential-health-benefits-of-obamacare-3306051 Ali, A., & Katz, D. L. (2015). Disease Prevention And Health Promotion: How Integrative Medicine Fits. American journal of preventive medicine, 49(5), S230-S240. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0749379715004080 American Diabetes Association (2018). Statistics about Diabetes. Overall Numbers. https://www.diabetes.org/resources/statistics/statistics-about-diabetes Fowler, T., Garr, D., Mager, N. D. P., & Stanley, J. (2020). Enhancing Primary Care and Preventive Services through Interprofessional Practice and Education. Israel Journal of Health Policy Research, 9, 1-5. https://link.springer.com/content/pdf/10.1186/s13584-020-00371-8.pdf Healthy People 2020. (n.d.). Healthy People 2020. Diabetes. https://www.healthypeople.gov/2020/topics-objectives/topic/diabetes Institute of Medicine. (2015). Assessing Progress on the Institute of Medicine Report. The Future of Nursing National Conference of State Legislature. (2020). Diabetes Health Coverage: State Laws and Programs. https://www.ncsl.org/research/health/diabetes-health-coverage-state-laws-and-programs.aspx National Conference of State Legislature. (2020). State Insurance Mandates and the ACA Essential Benefits Provision. https://www.ncsl.org/research/health/state-ins-mandates-and-aca-essential-benefits.aspx National Diabetes Statistics Report. (2020). Estimates of Diabetes and its Burden in the United States. https://www.cdc.gov/diabetes/pdfs/data/statistics/national-diabetes-statistics-report.pdf Norris, L. (2020). Obamacare's Essential Health Benefits: ACA's Essential Benefits, Key Takeaways. Health Insurance and Health Reform Authority. https://www.healthinsurance.org/obamacare/essential-health-benefits/ Riddle, M. C., & Herman, W. H. (2018). The cost of diabetes care—the elephant in the room. Diabetes Care, 41(5), 929-932. https://care.diabetesjournals.org/content/41/5/929?rss=1&utm_source=TrendMD&utm_medium=cpc&utm_campaign=Diabetes_Care_TrendMD_0 Saeedi, P., Petersohn, I., Salpea, P., Malanda, B., Karuranga, S., Unwin, N., & Shaw, J. E. (2019). Global and Regional Diabetes Prevalence Estimates for 2019 and Projections for 2030 and 2045: Results from the International Diabetes Federation Diabetes Atlas. Diabetes research and clinical practice, 157, 107843. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0168822719312306 The United States Food and Drug Administration. (2020). Fighting Diabetes ‘Deadly Impact on Minorities. https://www.fda.gov/consumers/consumer-updates/fighting-diabetes-deadly-impact-minorities#:~:text=Why%3F,progress%20faster%20in%20minority%20populations. Yakary?lmaz, F. D., & Öztürk, Z. A. (2017). Treatment of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in the Elderly. World journal of diabetes, 8(6), 278. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5483426/ Seymour, J. (2018). The Impact of Public Health Awareness Campaigns on the Awareness and Quality of Palliative Care. Journal of palliative medicine, 21(S1), S-30. https://www.liebertpub.com/doi/abs/10.1089/jpm.2017.0391 Ulmer, C., Ball, B., McGlynn, E., & Hamdounia, B. S. (2011). Essential Health Benefits: Balancing Coverage and Costs. The National Academies Press. http://www.nap.edu/catalog.php?record_id=13234
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